本文基于 bottle-0.12.13

从 run 函数(程序入口)开始分析

def run(app=None, server='wsgiref', host='', port=8080,
        interval=1, reloader=False, quiet=False, plugins=None,
        debug=None, **kargs):
    """ Start a server instance. This method blocks until the server terminates.

        :param app: WSGI application or target string supported by
               :func:`load_app`. (default: :func:`default_app`)
        :param server: Server adapter to use. See :data:`server_names` keys
               for valid names or pass a :class:`ServerAdapter` subclass.
               (default: `wsgiref`)
        :param host: Server address to bind to. Pass ```` to listens on
               all interfaces including the external one. (default:
        :param port: Server port to bind to. Values below 1024 require root
               privileges. (default: 8080)
        :param reloader: Start auto-reloading server? (default: False)
        :param interval: Auto-reloader interval in seconds (default: 1)
        :param quiet: Suppress output to stdout and stderr? (default: False)
        :param options: Options passed to the server adapter.
    if NORUN: return
    # 自动重新载入 server
    if reloader and not os.environ.get('BOTTLE_CHILD'):
            lockfile = None
            # For example: (10, '/tmp/bottle.gHcHRe.lock')
            fd, lockfile = tempfile.mkstemp(prefix='bottle.', suffix='.lock')
            os.close(fd) # We only need this file to exist. We never write to it
            while os.path.exists(lockfile):
                args = [sys.executable] + sys.argv
                environ = os.environ.copy()
                environ['BOTTLE_CHILD'] = 'true'
                environ['BOTTLE_LOCKFILE'] = lockfile
                # 开启子进程
                p = subprocess.Popen(args, env=environ)
                # poll() 检测子进程是否停止
                # None 子进程未停止
                # A negative value -N indicates that
                # the child was terminated by signal N (POSIX only).
                while p.poll() is None: # Busy wait...
                    # 更新文件修改时间
                    os.utime(lockfile, None) # I am alive!
                # 子进程以信号 3 退出,证明文件发生改变,重新开启子进程
                if p.poll() != 3:
                    if os.path.exists(lockfile): os.unlink(lockfile)
        except KeyboardInterrupt:
            if os.path.exists(lockfile):

        if debug is not None: _debug(debug) # 1
        app = app or default_app() # 2
        import code
        if isinstance(app, basestring):
            app = load_app(app) # 3
        if not callable(app):
            raise ValueError("Application is not callable: %r" % app)

        for plugin in plugins or []:

        # 创建对应的 server 对象
        if server in server_names:
            server = server_names.get(server)
        if isinstance(server, basestring):
            server = load(server)
        if isinstance(server, type):
            server = server(host=host, port=port, **kargs)
        if not isinstance(server, ServerAdapter):
            raise ValueError("Unknown or unsupported server: %r" % server)

        server.quiet = server.quiet or quiet
        if not server.quiet:
            _stderr("Bottle v%s server starting up (using %s)...\n" % (__version__, repr(server)))
            _stderr("Listening on http://%s:%d/\n" % (, server.port))
            _stderr("Hit Ctrl-C to quit.\n\n")

        if reloader:
            # 这里只有子进程才会执行
            lockfile = os.environ.get('BOTTLE_LOCKFILE')
            bgcheck = FileCheckerThread(lockfile, interval) # 4
            with bgcheck:
            if bgcheck.status == 'reload':
                # 子进程主动退出
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
    except (SystemExit, MemoryError):
        if not reloader: raise
        if not getattr(server, 'quiet', quiet):

01) _debug 定义在 run 函数的前面

def debug(mode=True):
    """ Change the debug level.
    There is only one debug level supported at the moment."""
    global DEBUG
    if mode: warnings.simplefilter('default')
    DEBUG = bool(mode)

_debug = debug

02) 如果没有传入一个 app 实例的话,会对 default_app 对象调用 __call__ 方法得到栈顶的对象

class AppStack(list):
    """ A stack-like list. Calling it returns the head of the stack. """

    def __call__(self):
        """ Return the current default application. """
        return self[-1]

    def push(self, value=None):
        """ Add a new :class:`Bottle` instance to the stack """
        if not isinstance(value, Bottle):
            value = Bottle()
        return value

app = default_app = AppStack()

这里执行了 push() 入栈了一个 Bottle 类的实例

03)并且如果 app 是一个字符串的话,会去调用 load_app(),实现从字符串制定的 moduel 加载 app

def load(target, **namespace):
    """ Import a module or fetch an object from a module.

        * ``package.module`` returns `module` as a module object.
        * ``pack.mod:name`` returns the module variable `name` from `pack.mod`.
        * ``pack.mod:func()`` calls `pack.mod.func()` and returns the result.

        The last form accepts not only function calls, but any type of
        expression. Keyword arguments passed to this function are available as
        local variables. Example: ``import_string('re:compile(x)', x='[a-z]')``
    module, target = target.split(":", 1) if ':' in target else (target, None)
    if module not in sys.modules: __import__(module)
    if not target: return sys.modules[module]
    if target.isalnum(): return getattr(sys.modules[module], target)
    package_name = module.split('.')[0]
    namespace[package_name] = sys.modules[package_name]
    return eval('%s.%s' % (module, target), namespace)

def load_app(target):
    """ Load a bottle application from a module and make sure that the import
        does not affect the current default application, but returns a separate
        application object. See :func:`load` for the target parameter. """
    global NORUN; NORUN, nr_old = True, NORUN
        tmp = default_app.push() # Create a new "default application"
        rv = load(target) # Import the target module
        return rv if callable(rv) else tmp
        default_app.remove(tmp) # Remove the temporary added default application
        NORUN = nr_old


class FileCheckerThread(threading.Thread):
    ''' Interrupt main-thread as soon as a changed module file is detected,
        the lockfile gets deleted or gets to old. '''

    def __init__(self, lockfile, interval):
        self.lockfile, self.interval = lockfile, interval
        #: Is one of 'reload', 'error' or 'exit'
        self.status = None

    def run(self):
        exists = os.path.exists
        mtime = lambda path: os.stat(path).st_mtime
        files = dict()

        for module in list(sys.modules.values()):
            path = getattr(module, '__file__', '')
            if path[-4:] in ('.pyo', '.pyc'):
                path = path[:-1]
            if path and exists(path):
                files[path] = mtime(path)

        while not self.status:
            if not exists(self.lockfile)\
            or mtime(self.lockfile) < time.time() - self.interval - 5:
                self.status = 'error'
            # 检测每个文件的修改时间,若修改则向主线程发出 KeyboardInterrupt
            # 结束主线程中的 with 语句
            for path, lmtime in list(files.items()):
                if not exists(path) or mtime(path) > lmtime:
                    self.status = 'reload'

    def __enter__(self):

    def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb):
        if not self.status: self.status = 'exit' # silent exit
        # return True 说明异常已经被处理,不会再向 with 语句外层的 try/except 抛出
        # return False 会触发外层的 except 块
        return exc_type is not None and issubclass(exc_type, KeyboardInterrupt)


-----------         -------------
|         |  poll() |           |
|  main   |   ==>   |   sub     |
| process |   <==   |  process  |
|         |  signal | run server|
-----------         -------------
                      ||    /\
                      \/    || if file updated, `thread.interrupt_main()`
                    |           |
                    |  thread   |
                    |           |
                    |check file |

之后来探讨一下 server 部分

先来看一下 ServerAdapter 这个适配器类

class ServerAdapter(object):
    quiet = False
    def __init__(self, host='', port=8080, **options):
        self.options = options = host
        self.port = int(port)

    def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover

    def __repr__(self):
        args = ', '.join(['%s=%s'%(k,repr(v)) for k, v in self.options.items()])
        return "%s(%s)" % (self.__class__.__name__, args)

通过继承 ServerAdapter 重写 run 方法,实现了如下 server

 +-- CGIServer
 +-- FlupFCGIServer
 # ...
 +-- BjoernServer
 +-- AutoServer

并将这些累关联到一个 server_names 字典中

server_names = {
    'cgi': CGIServer,
    'flup': FlupFCGIServer,
    # ...
    'bjoern' : BjoernServer,
    'auto': AutoServer,

默认的使用了 WSGIRefServer

class WSGIRefServer(ServerAdapter):
    def run(self, app): # pragma: no cover
        from wsgiref.simple_server import WSGIRequestHandler, WSGIServer
        from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server
        import socket

        class FixedHandler(WSGIRequestHandler):
            def address_string(self): # Prevent reverse DNS lookups please.
                return self.client_address[0]
            def log_request(*args, **kw):
                if not self.quiet:
                    return WSGIRequestHandler.log_request(*args, **kw)

        handler_cls = self.options.get('handler_class', FixedHandler)
        server_cls  = self.options.get('server_class', WSGIServer)

        if ':' in # Fix wsgiref for IPv6 addresses.
            if getattr(server_cls, 'address_family') == socket.AF_INET:
                class server_cls(server_cls):
                    address_family = socket.AF_INET6

        srv = make_server(, self.port, app, server_cls, handler_cls)